Research With Impact

Center for Sustainable Global Enterprise: Research With Impact


Sachin Gupta

Henrietta Johnson Louis Professor of Management, Editor in Chief, Journal of Marketing Research

Spillover Effects of Mission Activities on Revenues in Nonprofit Health Care: The Case of Aravind Eye Hospitals, IndiaJournal of Marketing Research, 55, 6, November 2018

Summary: In 2020 this paper was one of 14 recipients of the inaugural American Marketing Association’s AMA-EBSCO Annual Award for Responsible Research in Marketing, which honors outstanding research that produces credible and useful knowledge that benefits society. Gupta et al examine cross-subsidization business models employed by non-profit health care organizations in low- and middle-income countries. The Aravind Eye Hospitals in India deliver free eye care services to the needy as mission activities which are subsidized by charging other patients market prices. This approach allows Aravind and other non-profit organizations to fulfill both their mission-oriented and revenue-generation goals. Examining this dependence in the context of Aravind, Gupta et al measure nine years of marketing outreach camps, and find that although these are marketed only to poor patients, the camps attract paying patients as well, in effect acting as advertising for Aravind. Using model estimates, the authors’ findings challenge conventional beliefs about the subsidies required by mission activities, as the incremental revenue accruing to Aravind from a camp exceeds the camp’s cost.

Emerging human infectious diseases and the links to global food production, Nature Sustainability 2, June 2019

Summary: As global food demand rises sharply, infectious diseases emerge at unprecedented rates. Feeding 11 billion people will require increases in crop and animal production, agricultural use of antibiotics, water, pesticides and fertilizer, and contact between humans and wild and domestic animals. Evidence suggests that this activity contributes to the emergence and spread of infection. Barrett et al synthesize literature indicating that, since 1940, agricultural drivers were associated with significant proportions of all disease –and nearly half of all zoonotic infections– emerging in humans, and that these numbers are likely to grow. The authors identify agricultural, disease management, and policy actions, along with additional research, to address this public health challenge.

Christopher B. Barrett

Stephen B. and Janice G. Ashley Professor, Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management

Miguel I. Gómez

Associate professor, Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management

The economics and ecology of shade-grown coffee: a model to incentivize shade and bird conservation, Ecological Economics, 159, May 2019

Summary: The cultivation of shade-grown coffee is a production system widely regarded as environmentally sustainable and useful for biodiversity conservation. In this method, the crop is grown under a forest-like canopy of trees, enhancing pest control from birds; however, the process produces lower coffee yields. Gómez et al study this tradeoff here, along with the economic incentives required for smallholders (people managing agricultural holdings smaller than farms) to adopt shade practices rather than conventional systems, in which coffee is grown in sunnier settings. Formulating a dynamic optimization problem, the authors show that smallholders have incentives to allocate more land to shade-grown coffee under the appropriate market conditions.

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions of Amazon hydropower with strategic dam planning, Nature Communications, 10, 1, September 2019

Summary: Hundreds of dams have been proposed throughout the Amazon basin, one of the world’s largest untapped hydropower frontiers. While hydropower is a potentially clean source of renewable energy, some projects produce high greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit electricity generated (carbon intensity). Here the authors show how carbon intensities of proposed Amazon upland dams are often comparable with solar and wind energy, whereas some lowland dams may exceed carbon intensities of fossil-fuel power plants. Based on 158 existing and 351 proposed dams, they present a multi-objective optimization framework showing that low-carbon expansion of Amazon hydropower relies on strategic planning, which is generally linked to placing dams in higher elevations and smaller streams. Ultimately, basin-scale dam planning that considers GHG emissions along with social and ecological externalities will be decisive for sustainable energy development where new hydropower is contemplated.

Carla Gomes

Professor of Computer Science, Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management

Christopher Marquis

Samuel SC Johnson Professor in Sustainable Global Enterprise, Professor of Management and Organizations, Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management

Better Business: How the B Corp Movement Is Remaking Capitalism, Yale University Press, 2020 (Order Here)

Summary: Informed by Chris Marquis’ decade-plus of research on B Corps and animated by interviews with the movement’s founders and leading figures, Better Business tells the story of the rise of the B Corporation, a new corporate structure whose companies commit to putting social benefits and environmental stewardship on equal footing with financial shareholders. Marquis not only explores the rapid growth of global companies choosing to certify as B Corps, but also how B Lab’s systems and processes create more resilient and sustainable stakeholder-focused economic systems.

Better Business is the book to read if you want to put values and purpose at the center of your company. It’s an inspiring book with great insights to share.”

– Jerry Greenfield, co-founder, Ben & Jerry’s